Conservation actions at global and local scales in marine social-ecological systems: status, gaps, and ways forward.

Global drivers of change are affecting marine ecosystems and the people who depend on them at increasing rates and severities. Yet most marine conservation actions were developed before climate change was widely recognized as a major driver of change. In this chapter, we synthesize categories of marine conservation actions and their relevance at local and global scales, discuss linkages between scales, identify existing gaps, and provide recommendations. Marine conservation actions include those that directly address threats (protection, species management, and habitat management), and those that support, enable, or facilitate direct actions (law and policy; education and awareness; livelihood, economic and other incentives; and external capacity building). Our review reveals that although many effective marine conservation actions exist, all can be implemented more broadly and at multiple scales. Linking scales will be increasingly required to effectively address global drivers of change in the Anthropocene. (Chapter in Conservation for the Anthropocene Ocean: Interdisciplinary Science in Support of Nature and People.