Reversing biodiversity loss by 2020 is the objective of the 193 countries that are party to the 43 global Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). In this context, the Aichi Biodiversity 44 Targets 2020 were agreed upon by the CBD in Nagoya, Japan in 2010 and this was followed 45 by asking a high-level panel to make an assessment of the financial resources needed to 46 achieve these targets globally. First, we review the literature on the costs and benefits of 47 meeting the Aichi Targets. Second, we provide a summary of the main conclusions of the 48 CBD High-Level Panel (HLP) 1 & 2 on the Global Assessment of the Resources for 49 Implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. A key conclusion of the HLP is 50 that the monetary and non-monetary benefits of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use 51 to be achieved by implementing the Aichi Targets would significantly outweigh the amount 52 of investments required.