The global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted in 2015 include several targets related to the challenges facing the world’s fisheries. The targets make specific reference to improving small-scale fishers’ access to markets, combating IUU fishing, and reforming fisheries subsidies. Given that about 37% of fish and fish products are traded internationally, trade-related policies can play a significant role in helping the global community to meet many of the SDGs related to fisheries. This Special Issue brings together a range of new contributions on this critical interface. It focuses on trade in aquaculture products, fisheries subsidies, tariffs and non-tariff barriers, and trade measures used to address Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing. Its objective is to explore how trade policies can be deployed to support the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and fisheries and thereby contribute to achieving the SDGs.