A review of the fate of southern British Columbia coho salmon over time.

Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were once a thriving species in southern British Columbia, acting as a source of food, livelihood, and recreation. Research on the survival and status of coho salmon in British Columbia has been critical since an unprecedented moratorium on Interior Fraser River stocks was put in place in 1998, leading to its designation as an endangered species. Since then, no comprehensive literature review has been undertaken on coho salmon. The present paper outlines current publication trends since the early 1990s, covering research areas that include the management and regulation of wild-capture coho salmon fisheries, hatchery enhancement efforts, as well as the pertinent factors that resulted in low returns. A complementary analysis did reveal a progressive downward shift in the total publication records pertaining, but not limited to, coho salmon in British Columbia. This review process identifies future steps and guidelines that policy makers and fisheries managers should take into account to improve the conservation outlook of coho salmon. Emerging technologies such as the use of genomic identification tools, more consistent and thorough data gathering processes, as well as reformed hatchery rearing practices, have all been identified as decisive action items.

Determining the degree of ‘small-scaleness’ using fisheries in British Columbia as an example.

Small-scale fisheries have been estimated to contribute up to 30% of the global landed value, which is caught by approximately 22 million fishers, some of which can be attributed to developed countries. Socio-economic analysis of small-scale fisheries often focuses on developing countries and fails to recognize the presence and contribution of small-scale fisheries in the developed world. Fisheries in British Columbia are diverse and often regarded as being industrialized and large-scale when analyzed in a global context. This study aims to demonstrate that features of small-scale fisheries are present within British Columbia’s fleets. A list of re-occurring features of small-scale fisheries is curated from the literature to capture physical, economic and social features of small-scale fisheries. These commonly identified features of small-scale fisheries are applied to Aboriginal Food, Social and Ceremonial fisheries and all commercial fisheries in British Columbia are analyzed to determine the presence or absence of each small-scale fishery feature. The results of this research create a gradient of fisheries from smallest to largest scale. This approach determines that Aboriginal Food, Social and Ceremonial fisheries are the most small-scale, while the sablefish fishery is the largest scale. The qualitative nature of this framework creates an opportunity for any group of fisheries in the world to be compared.